Jewish talismans. Jewish amulets
It is quite clear that we should pay tribute to the Jewish tradition of mascots, more than any other. Would be true to say that in the Jewish community technique for creating talisman remained unchanged for thousands of years.
In his book "The Hebrew amulets" T. Sriram says that the Hebrew mascots considered so effective in the Middle Ages that they bought Christians "Ironically, the fact that many Christian knights pursuing the Jews to their homeland, had hoped for the same Jews to they gave their magical protection during the Crusades.
Orthodox Jews do not approve of the use of talisman (amulet), largely due to the fact that they were against anything that was even remotely related to magic, they were afraid of privacy, which are talismans, and feared that the creation of talismans is mixed idolatry.
Despite this, the Jewish leaders strongly pressed, forcing make talismans (amulet), many found a loophole in the Jewish law, to create them.
By the time when the Jews went out of the power of Babylon, talisman (amulet) have become a natural part of their everyday lives. In Jewish literature differed different "class" mascot. Talismans made by the staff could be worn on the Sabbath. Funny, but it was considered impolite to wear talismans for healing, but it was acceptable to use them to prevent the disease. Rarity was a talisman (amulet) inscribed on it the word "treatment", but there were talismans, which were written request protect against various diseases.
Jewish talismans (Jewish amulet) gain strength, because they were made with the use of the Hebrew letters and phrases from the Bible, which contained what was considered the words of God. The main difference between the Jewish talismans and amulets of other cultures is the lack of images rather than characters, and almost total dependence on the Hebrew letters and names in order to give the mascot force.
In the Bible, a lot of different names given by "God." The most famous is not pronounced the Tetragrammaton name of the Almighty, which Christian scholars transliterated as JHVH Jehovah. This literally means "it is" or "it will be." Jews considered the name of the very sacred to utter it aloud, and replaced it with others, such as Adonai, which Christians have translated as "Lord."
The Bible also mentioned other names - El Shadai, Elohim, Yah, and so on. Others appear when adding the first letter key Bible verses.
Each name represents various aspects of God, and every Jewish mascot began with a plea to any of them, such as "to the name of Adonai" or "With the shad." The aim was to remind the owner that he or she would be protected from certain actions, and this could only happen because of the power of God - for God still has the final decision.
Mascots also called angels, and you can select any one of a thousand. We consider their impact on the creation of talismans later. The most common angels in Jewish talismans were Ariel, Raphael, Gabriel, Michael and Nouriel. The names of these angels are sometimes reduced to one name forces with Notarikon.
Once created the mascot chose an appropriate name of God and the angels, he moved to the choice of the verse from the Bible, which is consistent with the goal talisman. People believed that the power of God becomes the mascot after Notarikon shorter poems. Mascot who helps to have a good singing voice, one of the best poems considered Exodus 15:1. Sometimes the choice of Bible verse has a hidden, secret meaning. For example, Genesis 49:22 appears on many charms, created to expel evil.
After the biblical verse, if enough space, please write small. Then inscription talisman ended direct statement of what he has to do, for example: "Let N, carrier mascot, sings a beautiful gentle voice." In many traditional Jewish talismans very common to see the word "Amen", repeated three times.
Jewish amulets were made on metal discs or written on paper. Many metal charms sometimes attached red beads, as it was believed that the red color brings protection. Judging by the number of errors in the inscriptions and names made during a mascot, it's easy to agree that the blacksmiths and did not know what they create. Skilled draftsmen did and paper charms, some of which have survived to the present day. They created them with the same care with which they painstakingly copied the Bible.
One of the rules required that the mascot was created during prayers or fasting. When the drawer handle in the lowered prepared ink, according to the instructions he had to say: "In the name of Shad, who created the heavens and the earth, I am writing this name to ..." and then writing assignment mascot. When finished, he had to say: "Blessed art thou, O Lord, sanctify this great name and uncover the essence of your righteousness, to show his power and strength in the language of his writing and in his statements."
Not surprisingly, the creation of a mascot called for such devotion that often only trust the chief rabbi of the city. Jewish holy Rabbi Chaim Joseph David Azoulay (1724-1807) earned his living creating mascots for his deep knowledge of the Kabbalah. He was busy angels, biblical verses and codes on the charms, and after his death, his signature is considered a talisman.
Mystical writings, especially the Kabbalah, have strongly influenced the development of the mascots. Here the names of God and angels were coded for practical use.
In 1320, Elezar of Worm wrote the most significant book on the creation of the Jewish talismans. His book "Sefer Razil" was written in the Middle Ages, but was not published until 1701. But that did not stop its widespread deployment of Jews in manuscript form. This book is seriously affected Hassidiks Jewish sect, whose members have been very successful creators talismans.
In his book "Sefer Razil" containing different kinds of mystical alphabets designed to ensure that the content of texts remained secret to outsiders. It also contained detailed lists of angels, symbols and Bible verses. These mascots were more complicated and elaborate, but essentially they were based on the same formula, which for centuries have used the Jewish masters.
An amulet, shown in the figure, inscribed lot divine names. In the four corners are the four rivers of paradise. They were mentioned in the Book of Genesis as Pison, Gihon, Tigris and Euphrates, and Kabbalists used to represent the current energy of the divine creation.
The first printed mascot was released in Venice in XIX century. Since then printed mascots have not changed much. On them was written "In the name of Shad" and they asked for the protection of their carrier, whose name was not mentioned. Bible verses are usually taken from Psalm 121 or 91. While some print mascots were consecrated or blessed by a rabbi many superstitiously believed that they have the power by the Jewish inscriptions. Creating a mascot was a religious and creative acts between the creator and the supreme powers, but there is the divine power of the Hebrew Scriptures and the faith of the owner mascot by letters, which will help in all cases. A more detailed description of how to use the Jewish talismans of protection provided in the medieval book about ghosts and King's Solomon "Lesser Key of Solomon," the first part of the "Goethe", Chapters 8 and 9. See http://smallbay.ru/.private/goetia8.html
Jewish talismans, as printed and made by hand, is still very common. Many of them are written on pieces of parchment, roll up tightly and stored in containers. A friend of mine gave me a talisman, which was supposed to protect me during my travels. It was a red velvet rolled into a clear plastic container in the shape of a straw.
Abramelin talisman to find coins and medals. The first word of the magic square ORION. Medieval English face.
Also worth mentioning is another Jewish system of creating mascots is the book "The Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage." This book, written in the XV century, provides a complete system of magic where the magician spends six months in seclusion, practicing rituals before you meet with the Supreme Being, and hone your skills with the demons. These demons and angels give a series of magic squares. Although magic squares were used in Jewish and Christian traditions to create talismans were Abramelin squares are unlike anything done before. The figure shown on this page - an example of one of these squares were used to search for ancient coins and medals. Abramelin magic system had little effect on the development of talismans, until the head of the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn, SL MacGregor Mathers has translated the only copy of the manuscript, which has come down to us from the times of medieval France. Some members of the Golden Dawn, especially those in New Zealand, believed that the squares have incredible power. Crowley believed squares so dangerous as to recommend a book store in a lead box. Many creators talismans believed that it is unwise to use the squares, not initially taking over the entire magical system of Abramelin - including a six-month retreat, with the knowledge and conversation with your Holy Guardian Angel.