Probably all heard about the so-called «Book of the Dead», which is often referred to in the mystical literature. What is this book, and whether they exist in reality?
«Book of the Dead» — real and false Ancient Egyptians placed in the tombs of hymnals, religious and magical texts that were to facilitate the transition of the dead to the underworld
The name «Book of the Dead» was given by Egyptologist R. Lepsius, but its original name in ancient Egyptian sounded like «well, Rau peret em heru» — literally means «Head of the release of the light of day.»
No less famous and the «Tibetan Book of the Dead.» However, the original name of this Buddhist text — «Bardo Thodol» — «Liberation through Hearing in the Bardo.» According to the concept of Tibetan Buddhists, the soul from the moment of physical death and to move to the next incarnation (reincarnation), goes through a series of stages — «Bardo.» They are described in the «Bardo Thodol.» In addition, for completing each stage a series of recommendations.
Quite often in the different sources mentioned the book «Necronomicon», supposedly representing the ancient Arab manuscript (another name — «Al Azif» — «Conversation demons»), written by a certain Abdul Alhazred from Damascus about 720, and containing a set of spells with which could encourage the ancient dark gods.
The first Western writers of «Necronomicon» HP Lovecraft mentioned in one of his short stories, written in 1923, he argued that the introduction to this essay because of his occult content can be dangerous for the reader, or even storing it at home.
According to Lovecraft, the name «Necronomicon» (literally, «the law of the Incarnation the Dead») was given to Orthodox scholar Theodore Filetom from Constantinople, who translated the book into Greek in 950 in the XIII century. Danish scholar Ole Worm manuscript translated into Latin.
By the time the Arabic original was lost. In 1232, Pope Gregory IX forbade the distribution of Latin translation, but it was published two more times: in the XV century. in Germany and in the XVII-th in Spain.
Greek translation is published in the first half of the XVI century. in Italy, probably died in the fire that destroyed the library Pikmena in Salem, where it was kept. According to Lovecraft, another instance was the famous occultist John Dee, who translated the book into English.
But before we came to book only in fragments. In addition, copies of the «Necronomicon» secretly kept in the British Museum, the National Library of France, at the library of Harvard University, the University of Buenos Aires and elsewhere.
According to one version, the writer simply invented «Necronomicon», even in the later confessed. But many believe that the book is real. According to some researchers, Lovecraft met this composition by his wife, Sonia Greene, before the marriage of one of the followers of the leader of the Satanists Aleister Crowley.
As candidates for the role of «Necronomicon» name already mentioned the ancient Egyptian and the Tibetan «Book of the Dead.» However, these texts do not have anything to do with the demonic, which ostensibly devoted legendary book.
Another option — a manuscript entitled De vermis mysteriis, or «Mystery of the Worm», which allegedly was recorded in IV century Roman legionary Terzi Sibelius with the words of a black mage named Talim. Around 1680 a monk discovered the manuscript in the library of a British castle and brought him to Rome. In 1932 the book was published.
A more recent prototype of «Necronomicon» — «Pikatriks» (Arabic for «Gayyat al-Hakim»), a book of black magic, written around 1000 Maslama ibn al-Ahmoy Magrititoy. In 1256, it was translated into Latin at the request of the Castilian King Alfonso the Wise. While in the Middle Ages, this book was very popular, it was considered semiprohibited.
Paranormal writer and researcher Colin Wilson believed that the prototype «Necronomicon» may be the famous «Voynich Manuscript», which is called the world's most mysterious book. The manuscript, containing a strange code, graphics, and astrological symbols, was acquired at the end of XVI century by Czech King Rudolph II.
The monarch, who was interested in the occult, purchased it from an unknown vendor for 600 ducats (at the time a very large sum). After the death of Rudolf book passed by inheritance to different people, among whom were the alchemists and scientists, and at the end of the XVII century. mysteriously disappeared. In 1912, the manuscript resurfaced — this time it was bought by an American bookseller Wilfrid Voynich. Voynich bequeathed it as a gift to Yale.
Many researchers have struggled with deciphering texts of medieval manuscripts, but to no avail… Wilson is also the author of a book called Liber Logaeth, which is allegedly a transcript variations «Necronomicon», stored at John Dee. Meanwhile, Dee does have a manuscript with the title written in Enochian language, but it has nothing to do with «Necronomicon».
In the second half of the last century there was still a lot of publications that were given for the translation of «Necronomicon». This, in particular, a certain Grimoirium Imperium, «Simon Necronomicon", based on the texts of the Sumerian mythology, and «Necronomicon Giger,» which is a collection of paintings by the Swiss artist Hans Giger to «demonic themes.»
In 2009, the translator working under the pseudonym Anna Nancy Owen, a compilation of texts, entitled «The Necronomicon.» But it is clear that to date, «Necronomicon», if any, is the product of a very, very conventional attitude.