& Every creature, including man, there is the instinct of self-preservation. However, there are cases where this instinct of self-preservation does not work, and the living entity is committed to the death ...
Werther's syndrome, or Death of imitation
After the publication of Goethe's sentimental novel "The Sorrows of Young Werther" at the end of XVIII century, many young people, victims fiasco love life, in imitation of the main character commits an act of suicide by shooting himself in the head. Bestseller had unprecedented success - young people dressed like Werther, act like and talk like Werther Werther. A quarter-century later, Napoleon Bonaparte, concerned about endless series of suicides in his army, even forbade reading this novel.
Most contemporaries Goethe honestly thought that the writer has made an unforgivable mistake, instilling youth disastrous idea. Suicides peak in imitation Werther ended only with the beginning of XIX century. But in subsequent years, the fashion for suicide repeatedly renewed. The reason for this is the voluntary death of a celebrity, and their fans, who wanted to go after them to the light, the way it used to settle accounts with life as an idol.
The wave of imitations in Russia at that time was called the publication of the novel, NM Karamzin's "Poor Liza". The main character himself on, suffering from unrequited love. She throws herself into the pond. As the place of this sad event was pointed writer accurately - Lisin pond near the Simonov Monastery in Moscow - the whole story was perceived as genuine. That Lisin pond and has become a traditional place where people come to drown all the girls, disappointed in love. Pond soon renamed Lysine pond, and the bark of trees surrounding it was carved inscriptions unfortunate lovers who have not found the courage to commit suicide, but to realize this need epistolary manner.
It is known that the phenomenon of Werther was repeated in subsequent years, but in new variations. Many young American women, following the example of Marilyn Monroe, tried to commit suicide by taking sleeping pills horse. Copied suicide not only idols, but also quite ordinary people. An example is a real epidemic samoubieniya very painful way by drinking acetic acid, common in the early XX century in Europe. Scientists believe that the imitative suicides are more common among young people and women, exposed group conformity, with a fragile psyche.
This phenomenon has been studied in detail in the second half of the XX century by the American sociologist D. Phillips. They found that the coverage of suicide on television and in the press acts as an advertisement, after which the suicide rate increases significantly. Moreover, the increasing number of accidents and fatalities, that at first it was very very clear. It would seem that may be common between suicide and death, such as in a car accident?
D. Phillips found that not so much the fact of suicide affects people's minds, how many large-scale reporting it. Accidents have occurred with a stable consistency in those regions, where the episodes completed suicides became known to the public. CONCLUSIONS: obsessive media reports of cases of self-imposed arms cause subconscious desire to follow all those who have had at least a minor unhappiness. D. Phillips came to the conclusion that the accident - is also a particular kind of self-destruction when a person seeks to death subconsciously.
They found that the greatest risk to have an accident or die during the crash occurs after three to four days from the time of the message. After about seven days, again, the risk of such accidents. Only ten days syndrome Werther fails.
Since the ban media report on suicide in a democratic state is not possible, psychologists recommend after every such news to be particularly careful in their behavior. In the days of the risk until it is forgotten, you have to be careful driving a car, not to make air travel, avoid risky travel and extreme sports. The ideal would be not to read newspapers, watch TV and do not stay at home, not going out, but in the current situation it is almost impossible.
Program of self-destruction
Psychologists believe that such a program lies in every living creature. For the first time it was declared the father of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud called this the current trend gradually "death instinct." In animals, it is included as a sharp increase in the number of individuals of a species threatened by loss to the community because of the lack of food. It is believed that the "call of death" and explains the mass suicide of dolphins washed ashore, and lemmings, thousands thrown into the water. This "Call of Death" is also in individuals with physical defects that go out of the pack to keep the survival of the species. To a large extent, this also applies to people.
In this case, the program can run self-destruction climate anomalies, violations of environmental, social and personal upheaval, and various kinds of deviant teachings and sects, romanticized and welcoming death. An example of the latter is the mass suicide of cult members "Peoples Temple" November 18, 1978, when in the jungles of Guyana to commit suicide at nearly 1,000 people, among whom there were 270 children who are unlikely to have done so voluntarily. The reason was the religious fanaticism of the members of the "commune" with unquestioning faith to their leader Jim Jones, who initiated this unprecedented mass suicide.
In past years, the theme of death have been banned since the communist morality, which does not take ideas afterlife, death is considered a loss in the struggle for existence - even if dying is a very old and worn in human disease. In later years, with the lifting of taboos about death and reasoning about it, the pendulum has swung in the opposite direction. People are not only interested in the subject of death and what lies behind it, but also actively use the funeral as a means of symbolic decorations and entertainment. And today it everywhere: in the numerous pendants, rings, hats, T-shirts and bandanas for tattoos depicting skeletons and the "Jolly Roger"
and in celebration of our not, the Celtic Halloween carnival costumes with "funny" skeletons. And this did not pass the fashion and the younger generation - the kids entertained like horror movie "Skeleton Warriors" or baby yogurt "Skeletons." Original result of all of this is the emergence of informal youth groups, erecting death cult. Goths and the Gothic style - a subculture romanticize death. Despite the name, it has nothing to do with the medieval Germanic tribe, nor the architecture of European cathedrals. Necrophilic trends and underscored a gloomy, depressed at the ready grasp of reality is not limited to the environment, clothes and makeup, but also to themselves, how many young people have committed suicide, poisoned by this ideology ...
The whole problem lies in the fact that in recent years people have become more sensitive, and a program of self-destruction is activated not only by fashion or propaganda, but the slightest blows of fate. However, there were times when there was no such program completely. Let us remember the Great Patriotic War, when suicides were rare. Moreover, despite the hunger and lack of medicines, the people in the war hurt a little. Military doctors have noted striking instances of vitality, when the soldiers were in the trenches for days, there was self-healing of stomach ulcers and other chronic diseases that they suffered from before the war now.
Now firmly established that the constant stress and readiness exercise, despite their danger, cause the release of endorphins in the body - substances that enhance the vitality and mitigate the negative experiences. This explains why young people, devoid of romance difficult battles and great buildings, like their fathers and grandfathers in particular, there are depressing psyche ideas, painted graveyard theme.
Due to lack of demand and doing nothing, many elderly people do not live too long to retire. Forced idleness with physical and mental activity leads them to early death from various, mostly domestic reasons. Therefore, all work is the only protection from the dull "call death."
Arkady Vyatkin, psychiatrist
"Secrets of the Twentieth Century" in September 2012