The first study, conducted in the service Twitter, was devoted to the «psychic» phenomenon «see far» monitoring people and places without the physical presence beside them. Its author has come to a sad conclusion: there is no «see far» does not exist.
British scientist Richard Wiseman (Richard Wiseman), has already received some notoriety original experiments on a controversial topic, said recently in his blog about the new job. This time the experience was unusual, if only because as a platform it use the popular micro-blogging social network Twitter. Another interesting subject of study itself, the phenomenon of «see far» associated with the paranormal ability of some people to «mind's eye» to see physically remote from their place, objects and people.
Joking aside, and exciting prospects to use these abilities have prompted the U.S. government in 1970-90 years. spend millions of dollars on research «see far», some experimenters reported that they were able to reliably show the reality of the phenomenon. Dishonesty whether experimenters to blame, or cunning test is unknown. Perhaps it was just the incorrect formulation of experience — especially since we were told about a case of «confirmation» of paranormal abilities, which in fact was associated just with errors experimenter. Read: «Clever Hans, Arabian stallion.»
One way or another, but the data does not satisfy the skeptic scientist, and Wiseman invented: that Twitter, with its wide coverage and the possibility of instant communication allows you to check the reality of the phenomenon on the statistically significant number of people. He posted a message on his microblog beginning of the experiment and invited everyone to participate. There had accumulated more than 7 thousand
In the first phase Wiseman tried to get up in advance not the named place, and from there to send a request to the participants so that they strained their whole paranormal and try to describe or even name the place where he hid. That just did not expect the volunteers! They called and covered by green hills, and a concrete parking lot, described a strange sculpture. 20th minute after a scientist sent them a link to a Web page containing a real image of the place where he was. Now, volunteers were asked to rate (a) the belief that paranormal phenomena really exist, and (b) the accuracy of the assumptions made above. Confidence was more than 1 thousand, and they indicated that the degree of coincidence of their assumptions with the reality is quite high.
The second phase, which took several days, was to test two hypotheses. First, you have those who believe in psychic ability, indeed the higher level of «predictive power.» And secondly, whether the group as a whole better ability to make accurate forecasts. Wiseman again changed a few places not previously publicized, calling wanting to send in their suggestions. He then invited them to 5 photos, one of which corresponded to the real place, and the rest — no. That picture, voted for by increasing the number of participants was the «group selection.» Once again, the scientist was disappointed.
For example, the first time he was in front of tall modern building — while the majority of the group preferred views of verdant trees. During the next attempt Wiseman sat on the playground, and the group chose the foot of the long ladder. Finally, he took shelter under a canopy of unusual shape — and the group sent him to the cemetery. Perhaps meticulous scientist just bored participants. Finally, on the fourth attempt, he stood in front of a bright red mailbox, the group chose the bank of the canal. In short, the failure of all attempts.
Finally, the scientists analyzed the impact of separate people who were convinced of the existence of «paranormal», and separately — the skeptics. The effectiveness of the predictions were equally low and those for the other.
«What have we learned? — Summarizes the scientist in your post — Yes, the study did not confirm the existence of the phenomenon of „see far“ and found that, apparently, more confident in reality „paranormal“ phenomena are confident people just is not any real relationship between the mind and the world. All this, in general, is not news. So, the main result of the paper is that it has demonstrated the ability to use Twitter for experiments requiring mass participation of volunteers. This is — a new and useful research tool. „
Of bad news
Bad news, published media, cause people are much more interesting than good. Now it is a fact confirmed by a study that was conducted by specialists from the Tel Aviv University.
The scientists also found that the speed of bad news, “word of mouth» is almost twice the rate at which the odds are good news. Also, learn about the bad news five times more people. Not only that — people are more willing to discuss is not good, and the bad news, often resorting to their own personal comments and ratings. On top of the bad news they remember better and for a longer period.
The study, consisting of a series of interviews was conducted by Professor Jacob Hornik, a member of the School of Management, specializing in marketing and advertising. According to Professor Hornik, in one case, the experimenters asked the heads of 160 Israeli companies. «We took the message, about the same number of sentences and found that managers are bad news quickly remembered and retold them at greater length than good. And we found that they are much less likely to say a good word about the firms mentioned in the negative news over with unfriendly remarks against those companies, which have been mentioned in the positive news. „
Another time students, chat, experimenters began to “flip» the positive and negative news about companies and their goods and timed speed with which this information is at odds. Needless to say, that the faster the Internet spread negativity.